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It is about closing physical, social and economic distances separating people, rather than only about eliminating boundaries or barriers between us and them. While there are many models to help you plan, the basic concepts are generally the same see reference Box 4. Each municipality has its own unique needs so plans should be changed and improved along the way depending on resources and priorities. Reasons: Remember to identify the reason s for conducting anti-racism and anti-discrimination work.

Is it because of a need in the community that has not been addressed? Have individuals or groups in the community identified a problem or requested support for an issue? Is it in reaction to an incident that occurred within the community? Is it a desire to ensure that the municipality is more inclusive for all its members? The reasons will help determine the goals of the work. Although the plan may be a response to a situation, the act of planning should be proactive with the aim of preventing discrimination in the future.

A clear plan of action will help municipalities decide what resources they have, how to effectively use them and how to identify the short and long term goals. It provides a blue print or guide to achieve inclusion. Know what is happening: First, look at all your existing activities. Some municipalities may already have committees set up or a city councillor or mayor who is interested in taking on issues of anti-racism. It is important to know who lives in the community and what issues are facing them.

Data: Look at current information about the population and how it is changing. This information gives you a picture of who is living in the community. If you already have this information, update it or reorganize the data to get a better understanding of trends. Statistics Canada has census information that covers the large cities and surrounding areas in the Census Metropolitan Area. Smaller towns will find figures in rural census tracts.

Sources of data: To get a quick sense of what issues of racism and discrimination face groups in the municipality, consult with representatives of groups most often affected. Think about what kind of national and provincial trends exist in racism and discrimination. Provincial and Federal websites can be very useful see Appendix 1 for the list of websites. Who: Who in the community can provide or has access to data?

Who has an interest in the results? These may be people who are affected by the need or problem or are parties that have influence or power over the issue. The successful or unsuccessful outcome of any anti-racist strategy involves looking at all members of the community as stakeholders, including people who are not members of racialized groups. This does not mean that everyone has to take part in the entire planning process.

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People can be involved where they can make the most valuable contribution. They are probably from particular ethnic or racial backgrounds that are not part of the majority group in the community or the power structure. They could include concerned people from the community at large, anti-racism and human rights activists, social workers, and organizations in the voluntary and faith sectors.

They have an interest or investment in anti-racism and anti-discrimination, but may not be aware of this interest. Indirect stakeholders may include local businesses that want customers; industries that need skilled workers; schools serving pupils from different ethno-racial and faith backgrounds; hospitals and clinics that want to attract and retain professionals, or the tourism industry that wants to promote and increase tourism to the area.

Stakeholder chart: Each of these direct or indirect stakeholders may suggest solutions that will only address their own interest and needs. Use a stakeholder chart to help identify and organize information about stakeholders, their interest in the outcome and their level of involvement in the process. See Appendix 2 for an example of a stakeholder chart that demonstrates: 1 why stakeholders are interested in anti-racism work, 2 the level of interest and what benefits and 3 risks are involved.

Getting people involved: Depending on the size of the municipality and the interest in the issue, a stakeholder group could be quite large. Committees, focus groups and community meetings can help get people interested and recruited to plan, implement and monitor chosen activities or strategies. In smaller municipalities, a single person can act as a catalyst to get the process underway. Working with community stakeholders early on has many advantages. It gives people a sense of ownership, links diverse groups, generates interest, heads off potential conflicts, generates local capacity building, and helps to formulate and support solutions that are meaningful to the community.

Building relationships requires time to set up and to maintain, but in the long term partnering creates a bigger impact. Organize information: First, organize the information in a way that summarizes the most essential information. It organizes information in a way that directly helps with planning. Goals, objectives, activities : A well done SWOT analysis helps pinpoint goals, objectives, and activities that are part of a complete plan.

However, it is useful to distinguish them. A goal is an aspiration or aim that directly relates to the plans purpose.


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For example, the goals of an anti-racism plan could be to reduce incidents of racial discrimination in the community and the experiences of racism. Goals are often long term aims. For example, increasing awareness of the impact of racism in the community would be an objective of the goal of reducing incidents of racial discrimination. Objectives are often direct actions and may be shorter-term than goals. For example, to reach the objective of increasing awareness of the impact of racism, activities could include developing a report on the experience of individuals who have faced incidents of racism or organizing a rally to oppose racism in the community.

An effective plan has activities that lead to the goal. It aims to develop and maintain the capacity to do the work. What community supports are available to draw on? Weaknesses — lack of resources, knowledge, awareness, lack of infrastructure Opportunities — taking advantage of trends or incidents, business and social service needs, influx of immigrants, tourists, professionals Threats — challenges, concerns, opposition.

Setting SMART goals and objectives should ensure that a plan is realistic and can be properly evaluated. Activities must be clearly connected to identified goals and objectives. Many activities are planned that fall short because of a failure to consider all things carefully. BOX 7: SMART specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, timed Specific — is the goal or objective sufficiently specific to easily understand Measurable — Can success at achieving the goal be measured and confirmed Attainable — Goals and objectives can be reached within resources available to the municipality Realistic — Goals and objectives are within the realm of possibility Timed — Goals and objectives are associate with clear timelines to guide activity.

Committees are often a central part of municipal anti-racism and anti-discrimination work. Establishing and running effective committees often makes a difference between some success and failure. Box 8 contains some basic rules for effective committee work. However, municipal committees addressing racism and discrimination usually require the support of at least one elected official to have meaningful impact in the municipality.

With the support of an elected official, many doors to administrative support and commitment are more easily opened, and many barriers to public recognition and support can be addressed. One of the main struggles with committees is keeping the members focused. SMART goals, objectives and activities should ensure that the committee is doing meaningful work. Many municipalities have First Nations populations that border the municipality or visit the municipality for services such as health care, education and business. Other municipalities have large urban Aboriginal populations within the community.

Aboriginal people have historically experienced significant racism and discrimination. To address their unique historical experience as part of anti-racism and anti-discrimination work requires recognition of their unique history and status in Canada. Aboriginal communities are different from non-Aboriginal Canadians in significant ways. They have constitutional guarantees to a system of Aboriginal governance that exists alongside other Canadian political structures.

In addition, Aboriginal culture is founded on a worldview that is unique. It governs many aspects of their lives and affects how they may relate with Canadian society and government. It is essential to understand Aboriginal communities in your area and learn about their experiences. Many different organizations, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal, have information to share. See Box 9 for some organizations that may prove useful. In some situations, it can be as easy as simply visiting and inviting their participation. Keep an open mind and do expect to learn about other ways of knowing.

Aboriginal peoples have learned a great deal about the non-Aboriginal world view. The learning experience needs to go both ways with mutual respect and honesty. One can build bridges and open dialogue by sharing cultural events. Youth groups in both communities will have creative ways to engage in cross-cultural activities, and it is useful to include them whenever possible. Elders play a significant role in Aboriginal community life. It is important that they be involved. Meeting elders in their communities rather than have them come to offices will show your interest in learning and sharing.

For elders to feel involved, they must feel that their views are received with respect and are being taken seriously. It is important to respect First Nation governance structures and cultural norms. In certain regions, there may be more than one First Nations Chief and each chief should be included. It may be useful to start with a particular need and make a specific effort to address that need from the perspective of the Aboriginal community.

Work with the community to meet that need. Starting with something small and tangible will help to establish the necessary relationships and understanding to productively work together to address racism and discrimination on a longer-term basis. BOX 9: Where to get current information? First Nations organizations. Look at successful efforts by other municipalities as a starting point for anti-racism and anti-discrimination activities for your municipality.

This section covers five key areas:. Examples of activities, based on the experiences of various municipalities across Canada, are included. Case studies describe specific initiatives in more detail. There are tips how to make the most of these types of activities. Municipalities, in their roles as employers and service providers, should collect and analyze data on issues of racism and discrimination in the community. Gather this information through surveys, interviews, document reviews and so on.

Collect information that identifies issues or gaps in services, clarifies issues and suggests possible solutions or initiatives to deal with problems. Deeply rooted in European and Aboriginal cultures, Thunder Bay values its diversity and continues to pursue ways of addressing racism and discrimination in its community. In , the Corporation of the City of Thunder Bay introduced its Voluntary Workforce Profile Survey, which asked municipal employees to identify if they were a member of a historically disadvantaged group.

The survey collected data to compare the diversity of the workforce with the diversity of the city. Employees declared if they were members of one or more of the following groups: women, Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities, and visible minorities. Participation was voluntary. The survey clearly set out the reasons for collecting the data to address any concerns that employees might have on how the information would be used. In , a second Voluntary Workforce Profile Survey was conducted and the Corporation compared their workforce data with the demographic data of Thunder Bay from the Statistics Canada Census.

The Corporation found that 3. By collecting data on its workforce, the Corporation could determine whether its workforce was as diverse as the community. However, Aboriginals were underrepresented in municipal employment and they were the fastest growing segment of the designated groups in the study. Based on these findings, the Corporation of Thunder Bay developed human rights policies and procedures that require equitable recruitment practices, hiring and employment.

The Corporation reviewed its workforce policies and programs for systemic biases. The Corporation continued tracking its workforce diversity to ensure that municipal employees are representative of the community and its increasing diversity. When municipalities raise awareness about racism and discrimination, they support their residents to better know what racism and discrimination can look like and help to prevent it.

With its increasing diversity, the City has been addressing the barriers to racialized groups to access services and make them feel welcome in Greater Sudbury. Diversity Thrives Here!

In the first stage of the project, the City engaged with service providers and residents to discuss and identify issues of inclusion and diversity and ways to ensure inclusivity. In the second stage of the plan, the City trained community members and youth leaders on ways to raise cultural awareness, to achieve common goals and to build coalitions for cross-cultural understanding.

It included ways to respectfully resolve issues.

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The activities are designed to engage community members in developing a broader plan for anti-racism and anti-discrimination in the city. Municipalities show leadership by encouraging and supporting community initiatives to address racism and discrimination. They can help residents, organizations, unions, schools and businesses to begin or continue to actively address racism and discrimination. Municipalities can do this by facilitating community initiatives and providing incentives and different types of resources, including information, funding and labour.

Encouraging and supporting others is a powerful way to deal with resource limits and expand the effort. SHCI was a city initiative following September 11, The City was an active member in SHCI and provided project management staff for the initiative through a secondment from the Community Services Department. The HCCI acts as a hub to give all Hamilton citizens access to the knowledge and resources needed to build a strong, racially diverse and welcoming city.

It has built programming and tools for public education and community engagement. As well, HCCI has initiated a broad strategy to promote equity, access and participation in the key sectors of employment, education, health and housing in the Hamilton community. Municipalities should review old and new by-laws to make sure they conform to human rights principles and the Ontario Human Rights Code. Establishing by-laws is among the most powerful tools available to municipalities. Actively ensuring that these conform to human rights principles and legislation is not only a legal requirement but also a clear signal to the community that anti-racism and anti-discrimination are real commitments.

Similarly, municipalities can also develop, implement and enforce specific anti-racism and anti-discrimination policies and review existing policies to eliminate implicit discriminatory barriers. Toronto is a multi-ethnic city and a primary destination for immigrants and refugees who arrive in Canada.

It has gained an international reputation for its anti-racism and anti-discrimination initiatives with its inclusive vision to build on the strength of its diversity. However, the policy does not apply to small businesses e. This requirement is included as a clause within all City contracts and applies to every community organization that receives a grant from the City.

As part of its effort to enforce the policy requirement, the office may enter places of work without prior notice to investigate and review records pertinent to City contracts. Through this policy, the City of Toronto has been able promote equality and anti-discrimination policies and practices, to monitor businesses to uphold equality and eliminate discrimination. Since then, other municipalities, such as Sudbury, have implemented a fair wage policy. Municipalities can promote the values of anti-racism and anti-discrimination in their communities by promptly and actively responding to incidents.

They should do this by collaborating with community organizations and law enforcement bodies to establish and support ways to identify, monitor and respond to acts of racism, such as hate crimes. Document incidents of racism and discrimination, and describe the actions taken in response to the issue. Municipalities can also encourage the reporting of incidents by community members who have experienced racism and discrimination. Connect with local news media such as local radio programs. Accessible reporting systems and support services can help community members deal with the effects of racism and discrimination and prevent future occurrences.

The Town of Sioux Lookout is located in Northwestern Ontario and has a population of approximately 5, The community acts as an important centre for health care, education, government and social services to many of the remote First Nations communities to the north. Aboriginal people have relocated from theses communities to make Sioux Lookout their home, and many others come as short-term visitors, either on business or to get services.

The purpose of SLARC is to help the people of Sioux Lookout learn to work and live together, respecting and celebrating their differences. The Sioux Lookout Anti-Racism Committee created several systems designed to meet the unique needs of their residents and to provide supports and responses to incidents of racism and discrimination.

Responses to racially-motivated incidents involve community members and promote inclusion for all municipal residents and visitors. Its activities are focused on two main sectors: youth and community groups. SLARC has developed a number of proactive initiatives and committees to respond to incidents of racism and discrimination in the community. The REsolve Program is a confidential community mediation service.

When residents and visitors to the municipality have conflicts around such issues as race and diversity, dispute resolution services are available in Ojibway or English. Mediation services are free of charge or on a sliding scale basis by trained community members. Although REsolve was created for Sioux Lookout, the model was designed so that it could be applied in other communities with similar issues. Diversity Thunder Bay www.

Anti-Racism Education

This chart provides a useful tool to identify possible stakeholders in your municipality, and useful information related to these that should help in planning anti-racism and anti-discrimination initiatives. Questions posed in the boxes are intended to help gather the information that will specify the chart for your municipal context. You can also add other stakeholders to the chart. Why are they interested and what do they see as benefits in anti-racism work? Are they interested? Could their interest be in social justice? A specific type of discrimination?

As a whole are they motivated? Are there significant groups that are motivated? Are there media outlets, websites, etc. Can mail-outs reach them? Are there other ways to convey information and engage? What are these? Is there a need for immigrant or internal migrant workers? Would promoting anti-racism and anti-discrimination attract workers and new customers?

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Do business owners perceive any threat coming from a diverse community? Canada recognized its obligations for refugee protection not merely as a humanitarian gesture, but also a legal requirement as a signatory state. Canada's national obligation to ensure refugee resettlement is protected under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, SC , c The oppressed individual or group is devalued, exploited and deprived of privileges by the individual or group which has more power. Definition of oppression. Social Work Dictionary.

Preference for one way of "being" — can be the result of the majorities cultural upbringing. This may cause people to discriminate without realizing why. You already notice the skin color of everyone you meet—now notice what difference it makes. There are effective and very ineffective ways to confront, for example, racism see resources below. Action strategies and activities. This can guide your focus as you embark on anti-oppression work. Anti-racism definitions. They ignore individual differences. It is human nature to put people and things in categories. We must start to consider the origins of these ideas and clarify evidence that supports these stereotypes.

Awareness and knowledge about others will lessen our stereotypes and better equip you to educate, advocate, and challenge others about stereotypes. Be brave and engage in honest dialogue with members from diverse cultures and perspectives. Be respectful of an individual's request for privacy which may be cultural or personal. Overcoming racial stereotypes. Gain a better awareness of everyday stereotypes.

Racist behaviour can be overt, such as treating some people according to their race or colour, but also covert, when society systematically treats groups according to some form of discriminating judgement. Reverse Racism — Myth or Reality? It includes any action, intentional or not, that has the effect of singling out persons based on their race, and imposing burdens on them and not on others, or withholding or limiting access to benefits available to other members of society. It is when, either knowing it or not, someone has negative ideas about themselves and their race or culture.

Power, privilege, and oppression. The individual believes that life would be better if they acted, looked, or spoke more like the dominant culture. It is the holding of negative attitudes towards a different race or culture. Race and racism. It is the giving of negative treatment to a group of people based on their race. Institutional racism. This may send a message about the diminished value of diversity within an organization or lack of interest to hire anyone outside of the dominant culture.

Listen carefully and respect confidentiality. Recognize that some situations are best addressed publicly and others privately. Explore safely how to confront a racist with cultural commentator Jay Smooth. Take action against racism. Equity does not mean treating people the same without regard for individual differences. Equity appears unfair, but it actively moves everyone closer to success by "leveling the playing field. Illustrating Equality vs Equity.